Biodiversity can be measured globally or in smaller settings, such as ponds. For example, each community may contain 5 species and 300 individuals, but in one community all species are equally common (e.g., 60 individuals of each species), while in the second community one species significantly outnumbers. For example, an intuitive and simple measure such as the total species number in a sample to describe species diversity will be heavily influenced by variation in sampling intensity (Lande 1996). }); Biologydictionary.net Editors. Every single species has a role to play, although some – like viruses and disease-carrying mosquitoes – are considered to be damaging to the well-being of humans and other organisms and steps are being taken to eradicate them. The major habitat types from which all other smaller ecosystems derive are called terrestrial, marine and aquatic ecosystems. Species richness is a term which is used to measure the biodiversity of a given site. "); Plots with three or six species/populations were established in 1.5 × 1.5 m plots at a density of 24 plants per plot, which is a realistic density for this community. These three examples of ecosystem diversity contain further examples as subgroups. The greatest threat leading to the loss of biodiversity is the human race. The following is the Bio geographic zones of India and the types of vegetation found: Many of the endangered and endemic species need human intervention for survival. Disclaimer 9. Together, these terms have been used to describe species diversity patterns on Earth. Within these diverse ecosystems, one must also consider trophic levels, how species interact with that specific ecosystem, climate, pollution or human impact and every other variable that is part of that particular habitat. It refers to the variety of life and includes all living organisms such as plants, animals and microorganisms and their unique characteristics. Rich biodiversity will speed the recovery of the environment after a natural disaster. Should something drastic happen to affect the health of this bacteria and it becomes extinct, there is no other organism to take advantage of this inhospitable environment. For example, the diversity calculated with Rao's quadratic entropy is an expected distance between species pairs. Copyright 10. For example, if the number of species is more important than the relative abundance of species in your study system, I would recommend species richness as a diversity … Even in these, other organisms can adapt and successfully reproduce, but the levels of biodiversity as compared to the replaced environment are significantly lower. Mangrove trees – a diverse group of around eighty different species – have diversified to successfully survive and reproduce in salt water. Humans, for example, have different eye and skin colors, hair textures, propensity for disease, reactions to pollutants, heights, hormone levels and so on. for comparing tree diversity in peri-urban and urban forests when available data have different sample sizes, plot sizes, and sampling intensities. The region is also rich in fauna, containing about 65,000 species of animals. The flowering plants comprise 15,000 species of which several hundred (5000-7500) species are endemic to India. Or the Great Barrier Reef. This means that an ecosystem must contain at least 1,500 species of plants found nowhere else on earth (endemic” species) but have also lost at least 70% of its primary native vegetation. 6,500 of other invertebrates, 2,000 offish, 140 of amphibians, 420 of reptiles, 1,200 of birds and 340 of mammals are recorded from India. Privacy Policy 8. It gives genetic variation within a population or varieties within one species. Species that are very different from one another contributes more to overall biodiversity. For example, in the Pacific Northwest, salmon holds together the entire ecosystem. If a species has other value beyond its use to the human race, it has intrinsic value. Species diversity treatments did not include the dominant plant, A. breviligulata, in the species pool. Without biodiversity, ecosystems would produce less. Secondly, while one can formulate "rules" about species diversity, each rule has many exceptions. Most species vary in about 20 percent of their genes, but cheetahs only vary by 1 percent. In other regions, the higher temperatures cause destruction. Species can have instrumental or intrinsic (inherent) value. Gini-Simpson index) associated to features. There are two reasons for differences between individual organisms. 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